“Lightweight Models & Cost-Effective Scalability”

This week is the last web 2.0 pattern, which is “Lightweight Models & Cost-Effective Scalability”. It combines with two concepts; firstly, the models are small constructing and verifying properties of a model within a bounded domain automatically, by means of enumeration over the domain. Additionally, scalability in web 2.0 applies to business models as well as technology; and changes in cost, re-usability, process; and strategy mean much more can be done for less. Therefore, adopt a scalable, cost-effective strategy encompassing business models, development models, and technology to deliver products to market faster and cheaper without sacrificing future growth. (Tim O’ Reilly, 2005)

There are some significant information about lightweight models:

  • Simplicity and organic web-based
  • Support lightweight programming models that allow for loosely coupled systems: Easy to make changes with less risk. Small pieces of applications/plugins are also less specialized, more reusable, shareable, and hackable.
  • Open source software – reuse easy and more cost-effective
  • Think sybdication, not coordination – RSS feed or REST-based web services
  • Design for hackability and remixability – an important goal for web services

The best example of lightweight model that I am going to explain is MailChimp.

MailChimp is a do-it-yourself online email marketing service. It is a distributed application that provides easy-to-use web based tool to over 300,000 users worldwide, from a single user to Fortune 500 Corporation. It offers free marketing service which allows its customers to design professional HTML emails, send emails with confidence, manage email list and track their own marketing campaigns in minutes with its simple tools. MailChimp delivers more than 200 million emails per month from over 70 countries and in 26 languages, including Cyrillic, Mandarin and Japanese…etc.(MailChimp, 2012). It has flexible plans for every budget as well as the forever free plan. It offers user-friendly web services interfaces and content syndication as well as re-using the data services of others.

In addition, MailChimp is an open programming language that makes users easy to sync with outside applications and databases, and also supports the most common programs and applications available (MailChimp, 2012). Whats more, MailChimp uses web 2.0 technology, RSS to develop the tool, called RSS-to-Email tool. This tool provides the users to automatically send a newsletter whenever they update their blog (or any RSS feed). It also offers two web services which are MailChimp API and MailChimp Plugins to MailChimp users. It has used MailChimp API as its lightweight programming business model which provides a high-level of integration between these applications and creates a more seamless experience for its customers (The Small Business Web, 2010).

Two web services:

  • MailChimp API is a way for people to “sync” your customer database, Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Content Management System (CMS), or e-commerce shopping cart with MailChimp (MailChimp, 2012). There is a version of the MailChimp API for PHP, .Net, Ruby, and XML. It is open and free, which encourages the third party developers to link their applications to MailChimp. Therefore, MailChimp API can be integrated with other applications like Drupal, WordPress, Zen Cart…etc. It is even compatible with Google Open Social platform, and allows people to interface MailChimp with MySpace, Ning, and other social networks (MailChimp, 2012). These will enable users to extend MailChimp functionality and make it cheap, and reusable and remix and share with others.
  • MailChimp plugin allows MailChimp users to connect MailChimp to their own favorite web applications such as CMS, blog, e-commerce shopping cart. It is created by some crafty MailChimp users using MailChimp APIs.

To sum up, the development of web 2.0 technology has impacted on people and business. MailChimp shows a great example in web 2.0 application with lightweight Models and cost-effective scalability, as well as innovation in assembly. According to MailChimp(2012), in December 2009 had more than 19000 users, and it increased significantly up to over 27000 users in May 2010; therefore, in the future, the Internet will support more web applications and the web server will offer more and more free and open web services.


O’reilly. “What Is Web 2.0”. Retrieved May 16, 2012.

Mailchimp (2012). “About MailChimp”. Retrieved May 16, 2012.

Research.att (2010). “Lightweight Modeling and Analysis: Studies and Comparisons of Alloy and Promela/Spin”. Retrieved May 16, 2012.

The Small Business (2010). “The Small Business Web”. Retrieved May 16, 2012.

Kang.K (2010). “Lightweight Models and Cost-effective Scalability”. Retrieved May 16, 2012.


“Leveraging the long tail”

The topic for this week is “Leveraging the long tail” in web 2.0 pattern. According to Anderson.C (2004), he indicated “the theory of the Long Tail is that our culture and economy is increasingly shifting away from a focus on a relatively small number of “hits” (mainstream products and markets) at the head of the demand curve and toward a huge number of niches in the tail. As the costs of production and distribution fall, especially online, there is now less need to lump products and consumers into one-size-fits-all containers. In an era without the constraints of physical shelf space and other bottlenecks of distribution, narrowly-targeted goods and services can be as economically attractive as mainstream fare.”

Anderson described more clearly with the graph, the vertical axis is a period of seeling profit and the horizontal axis is popularity products; obviously, the dark part is the first 20% of popularity products can provide enough 80% revenue for business, however he found out the long tail will not suddenly decrease until zero, it becomes a very long tail. Due to the long tail has caused, those products become the niche products for business.


Anderson has declared three significant points of long tail:

  1. The diversification of products will make the market curve tail growth long, and its length is far beyond everyone’s imagination.
  2. In the Internet era so commonly, all the products can be cost-effective manner to engage with consumers.
  3. To integrate the end niche products will allow companies to create larger market.


Therefore, I would like to introduce Apple iTunes for this topic. iTunes is an online retailer which can stock virtually everything, and the number of available niche products outnumber the hits by several orders of magnitude. Those millions of niches are the Long Tail, which had been largely neglected until recently in favour of the Short Head of hits. In addition, iTunes online market, 80 percent of all revenue comes from around 52,000 tracks; but iTunes also provides music videos, television shows, iPod games, audiobooks, podcasts, movies and movie rentals. As a result, download music tracks from iTunes is main revenue, as we can say it’s the first 20% of popularity products make a very significant income on iTunes, and the 80% remains are niche products which make products more diversity that the long tail will never be end.


To sum up, iTunes has been great successful in their products, they keep production costs low and distributions must be cheap. It attracts people in a very low inventory costs to make the products which are only 20% popularity products out of 80% of other niche products. As we can say, the long tailers drive their inventory costs nearly to zero.



Wired. “The Long Tail”. Retrieved May 9, 2012.


Billingworld. “Eight Lessons from the Long Tail”. Retrieved May 9, 2012.


Wikipedia. “ITunes”. Retrieved May 9, 2012.


Anderson,C(2004). “The Long Tail, in a nutshell”. Retrieved May 9, 2012.

“Perpetual Beta”

This week the topic focuses on “Perpetual Beta” in web 2.0 pattern. The software or applications that we used was installed already and always be the correct beta; however, in web 2.0 environment the beta updates regularly, it means that there is not correct version for applications in web 2.0, it constantly upgrade it with new functionalities and connect the services with customers all the time. According to Tim O’ Reilly, he indicated that engage users as real-time testers, and instrument the service so that providers know how people use the new features. Therefore, Facebook is one the best example that I would like to introduce in this web 2.0 pattern.

Facebook is a well-known social service for everyone, it provides users to create their personal profile, add other users as friends, and exchange messages, including automatic notifications when they update their profile. Firstly, Facebook was only to upload albums and photos on personal pages, and then in 2007 it allows users to post attachments to the wall. Moreover, in 2008, Facebook released a Comet-based instant messaging application called “Chat” to several networks, which allows users to communicate with friends and is similar in functionality to desktop-based instant messengers. As a result, Facebook has forcing to upgrading the functionalities for users in order to supply more tools to serve customers.

In addition, same year in July 2008, Facebook introduced “Facebook Beta”, a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a “cleaner” look. After initially giving users a choice to switch, Facebook began migrating all users to the new version starting in September 2008. On December 2008, it was announced that Facebook was testing a simpler signup process. However, in the year 2011 and 2012 new feature of Facebook has come out named as ‘Facebook Timeline’, which is a new page interface on Facebook. Timeline is a way of displaying a list of events in chronological order, sometimes described as a project artefact. It is typically a graphic design showing a long bar labeled with dates alongside itself and (usually) events labeled on points where they would have happened.

Finally, Facebook constantly provide new version and update any functions based on users’ feedback. The feedback from users can assist to improve their services, and built up the good foundation from users experiences. Facebook never has the correct version; it continues every year or even every month to upgrading the functionalities in order to provide the better quality for users.


Wikipedia. “Perpetual beta”. Retrieved May 2, 2012.

O’reilly. “What Is Web 2.0”. Retrieved May 2, 2012.

Wikipedia. “Facebook”. Retrieved May 2, 2012.

Wikipedia. “Facebook of Timeline”. Retrieved May 2, 2012.

Wikipedia. “Timeline”. Retrieved May 2, 2012.

21stcenturylibrary. “Perpetual Beta – The Real 21st Century Library Model?”. Retrieved May 2, 2012.

“Software above the level of a single device”

This week we focus on another pattern which is “Software above the level of a single device” in Tim O’Reilly’s 6th pattern. This refers to software is not only supported by single device, it also can be supply on multiple devices such as smartphones, and tablet computers. According to Dave Stutz, he mentions that “Useful software written above the level of the single device will command high margins for a long time to come”; therefore, any software and applications designed for PC has evolved into support on multiple devices in order to increase massive customers to accept it, and make people’s life easily to connect each other. However there are many software and application design for PC and smartphones, we are going to talk about Skype and MSN Messenger.

The main purpose of Skype is to connect people. It was designed on PC for everyone for signing up free, and people from over the world can connect through many different ways. Members can connect through one or two audio, one or two way video for free; moreover, members can call any telephone around the world through this costs money. After Skype has become so popular, and multiple devices have turning into universal in people’s life; for instance, smartphones assist many applications in order to attract more people to use it, therefore, Skype is not only designed for PC, it also supports on smartphones such as iPhone with iOS system and other smartphones with Android system.


On the other hand, MSN Messenger is an application that people can connect to people by instant messaging and videoing which is similar to Skype. But the difference is that Skype can make phone direct to local line and mobile phone in any countries, which MSN Messenger does not support it. Furthermore, MSN Messenger owned by Microsoft and was original work on PC with Windows platform, it has turning to work on any laptop system and smartphones to service more customers to use it.


Overall, we expect the areas of web 2.0 has greatest change, as more and more devices are connected to the new platform. This is why software can not only support on only single device, it must consider on software or applications can be used on multiple devices.


O’reilly. “What Is Web 2.0”. Retrieved April 24, 2012.

Wikipedia. “MSN”. Retrieved April 24, 2012.

O’Shea,J. “Skype”. Retrieved April 24, 2012.

Kioskea. “MSN Messenger”. Retrieved April 24, 2012.

“Rich user experiences”

This is another week for web 2.0 pattern which is “Rich user experiences”. Web 2.0 application such as Google Talk, Google Gmail, Flicker and Facebook can present the user with an interaction experience and feature that is as rich as the experience with a desktop application. The most amazing aspects of Web 2.0 are the degree to which Web sites can now match the capabilities found in installed applications. This means that we can now deploy 2.0 applications with much less worry about the individual capabilities of the computers. Google Gmail is a web application that provided some interesting innovations in email, combining the strengths of the web with user interfaces that approach PC interfaces in usability. Meanwhile, other mail clients on the PC platform are nibbling away at the problem from the other end, adding IM and presence capabilities.

Gmail is a web email service, the service includes personal phone call with an existing Google account. Gmail uses viral marketing to expand new product, which to exploit pre-existing social networks to produce exponential increases in brand awareness through the internet. Gmail interface is very successful in the internet with large storage space and a powerful search tool.

In addition, Rich user experiences are typically a combination of GUI -style (Graphical User Interface) applications and multimedia content. The value of creating a web-based software that works and gives the user a similar experience to a computer-based software program is growing in the Web 2.0 paradigm. A key component that facilitates this type of experience is AJAX. AJAX is a collection of technologies used together to create a rich user experience.

AJAX is a culmination of many Web 2.0 values, combining common standards through XHTML, CSS, and XML and using JavaScript to bring it all together in a final form. These technologies are highly based upon the idea of semantic markup. Semantic markup is the standardization of web languages and uses to facilitate consistency across the web visually and functionally. With semantic markup languages, for instance, XHTML and CSS, the user gains a richer experience visually and productively.


Tstiles. “Rich User Experience”. Retrieved April 5, 2012 from


Samrantech. “AJAX: A rich user experience”. Retrieved April 5, 2012 from


Peej. “XMLHttpRequest, REST and the Rich User Experience”. Retrieved April 5, 2012 from http://www.peej.co.uk/articles/rich-user-experience.html


Prezi. “Rich User Experience”. Retrieved April 5, 2012 from


Wikipedia. “Gmail”. Retrieved April 5, 2012 from

“Innovation in Assembly”

This week we will move on to another web 2.0 topic, which is “Innovation in Assembly”. I’m sure that not everyone familiar with this, so let me do a short introduction. The web 2.0 combines so many data in our era, personal, business, international companies …etc. all depends on the websites’ platforms; therefore, it has become a massive resources that increasing recombinant sources possibilities and also unintended uses of system and information on API which named as Application Programming Interface. API consists with many different data through the application, and it can collaborate with small business or even larger companies, such as Google, Yahoo!…etc. The most popular application and I’m going to talk about is Google AdSense.

Google AdSense is a program that displaying Google advertisement on websites and getting beneficial revenue from Google searching engine, therefore, it increases the capacity of Google’s websites and also database.

Some web servers do the significant effort for AdSense, as below:

  1. They use a wide range of traffic-generating techniques, including but not limited to online advertising.
  2. They build valuable content on their websites that attracts AdSense advertisements, which pay out the most when they are clicked.
  3. They use text content on their websites that encourages visitors to click on advertisements. Note that Google prohibits webmasters from using phrases like “Click on my AdSense ads” to increase click rates. The phrases accepted are “Sponsored Links” and “Advertisements”. (Wikipedia, 2012)

Moreover, AdSense has divided into several different types, for instance, AdSense for Feeds, AdSense for search, AdSense for mobile content, AdSense for domains, and AdSense for video. Although it is a great application for people to advertise, there is another application called Google AdWords. Google AdWords can help you when you design an advertisement, which is for displaying on the correct relevant websites or Google searching engine results pages. However, Google AdSense aims to use Google AdWords advertisements get involve in personal websites such as blogging; and according to this, Google will clarify the ad types and based on the users clicks or impression to pay the money for the site network publishers on the published advertisement.


O’reilly. “What Is Web 2.0”. Retrieved March 28, 2012 from http://oreilly.com/pub/a/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html?page=4

Wikipedia. “API”. Retrieved March 28, 2012 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/API

Zdnet.”Web 2.0 definition updated and Enterprise 2.0 emerges”. Retrieved March 28, 2012 from http://www.zdnet.com/blog/hinchcliffe/web-20-definition-updated-and-enterprise-20-emerges/71

Techtarget.”Google Adsense”. Retrieved March 28, 2012 from http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci1180205,00.html

Wikipedia. “AdSense”. Retrieved March 28, 2012 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AdSense

Wikipedia. “AdWords”. Retrieved March 28, 2012 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AdWords

“Data is the next Intel Inside”

Another week for Web 2.0 platform is “Data is the next Intel Inside”, which is a significant element on internet application. The application of this platform will be eBay this week which has contained a range of users’ details such as locations, identity, products, and calendar for special period; those information can be useful data throughout the internet application, perhaps, these data is turning to internal data that on internet system.

So, what is “data is the next Intel inside”? First, we have to understand the origin of this platform. In the early 1990’s, the “Intel Inside” marketing and campaign made Intel a household name to producing central processor units which we known as CPUs for computer, and also began manufacturing motherboards. This made no matter smaller companies or larger companies brand was outside of the computer.  Until Web 2.0 began to dawn, the development is that it does not have to execute with hardware. Therefore, the dominant, foundational technology became on the Web 2.0 world which is controlling data, for example, location, identity, calendars…etc. (Mark Oehlert, 2008)

Another statement by Tim O’reilly on Data is the Next “Intel Inside” is that “The race is on to own certain classes of core data: location, identity, calendaring of public events, product identifiers and namespaces. In many cases, where there is significant cost to create the data, there may be an opportunity for an Intel Inside style play, with a single source for the data. In others, the winner will be the company that first reaches critical mass via user aggregation.” (Tim O’ reilly, 2005)

eBay is an online auction websites for people to shopping instead of going real shop. It has organized items into listings for customers which is great for finding items, therefore, it produces huge amount of data; however, eBay does not own the products, it is an application on website that shows the information and the situation between buyers and sellers, and make purchase on the internet, and also leave comments. The other application operates slightly different is carsales.com; this application contains a lot of data of cars detail only, but do not make purchase throughout the internet. But both of them listing their items into their files data and classify into categories for users easily to recognize and make comments on the products.


Finally, most of Web 2.0 applications focus on specialized database driven content, which harnesses users to build context through the data humanization and getting better results through drawn conclusions of that “Data is the next Intel inside”.


Mark Oehlert. (2008, september 15). Change 2.0: How Does E-Learning 2.0 Affect Organizational Culture? Retrieved March 21, 2012, from Learning Solutions Magazine: http://www.learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/86/change-20-how-does-e-learning-20-affect-organizational-culture

O’reilly. “What Is Web 2.0”. Retrieved March 21, 2012.


Digilee.net. ”Data Is The Next Intel Inside: Participation Builds Success”. Retrieved March 21, 2012. http://www.digilee.net/?p=219


eBay. Retrieved March 21, 2012.http://www.ebay.com./


carsales.com. Retrieved March 21, 2012.http://www.carsales.com.au/